Anticipation / Reaction
This is one of the primary principles of animation.

Almost every movement is made up of an anticipation, action and reaction. The anticipation is the preparation to the action and the reaction is the recovery from the action.

A good example of this is someone throwing a ball. The wind up or when you pull your hand back is the anticipation. Throwing the ball is the action. Settling back into your relaxed position of standing is the reaction.

Without any anticipation, your ball will not go very far.

Another example of a much more subtle anticipation / reaction is when you walk. If you start from a standing still position, you need to lift one of your legs to move it forward to get your first step under way. The action of lifting your leg requires you to shift your weight from the middle of both feet over to just one, then you can lift your foot off the ground. This shift in weight is your anticipation to moving forward.

When you stop walking, the forward momentum of your body weight requires you to do the same thing as when you started but in reverse. This is the reaction.

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