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Established 15,000 B.C.

Volume 34, May 1685.

Johann Zahn publishes
his 'Oculus Artificialis Teledioptricus Sive Telescopium'

In 1685 Johann Zahn published his 'Oculus Artificialis Teledioptricus Sive Telescopium' with many descriptions and illustrations of both the camera obscura and magic lantern. Zahn used the lantern for anatomical lectures, illustrated a large workshop camera obscura for solar observations using the telescope and scioptric ball, demonstrated the use of mirrors and lenses to erect the image, enlarge and focus it. Zahn also designed several portable camera obscuras for drawing using the 450 mirror, and used side flaps to shield unwanted light. Zahn's camera obscuras were the closest thing to what 19th century cameras were.

Zahn gave credit for the magic lantern to Kircher and mentions Schott and De Chales in his references. Zahn also suggested the presentation of images under water and proceeded to explain, and stressed the importance of hiding the magic lantern out of sight of the audience. This book also goes on to show how time (a clock) can be projected onto a larger screen, and how wind direction can be seen by having a connection from the lantern to a wind vane on the roof of the building. Zahn even foresaw the use of the lantern to project the image on glass which allowed several to view at one time, as opposed to the camera obscura which was limited largely to one observer at a time [excepting the room camera] (as the kinetoscope surpassed the mutoscope for the same reason). Perhaps the most prolific writer and illustrator of the camera obscura, Zahn has left us with many different diagrams, illustrations and sketches.
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